Review of: Solfs Bonn

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In seiner Abwesenheit war es sowohl zu bürokratischen Unklarheiten als auch zu Misshandlungen von chinesischen Arbeitern gekommen, weshalb er den Gouvernementsbeamten eine ordentliche Standpauke hielt. Auf der erneuten Faipule beschlossen die Dorfoberhäupter, Lauati Fc Vitebsk Samoa zu verbannen. Name August Solf Gauselmann Pleidelsheim. Solfs, Bonn Arcade. germany › Nordrhein-Westfalen › Reg.-Bez. Köln › Bonn › Arcade › Solfs. Adress. Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz Bonn. Phone number Places near Solfs. Subway. Sandwich Shop. 11 meters Tiefenrausch Bonn. Night Club. 11 meters Schickimicki Club Bar. Night Club. 20 meters Coppeneur Chocolatier. Solfs Moderne Spielstätten in Bonn, reviews by real people. Yelp is a fun and easy way to find, recommend and talk about what’s great and not so great in Bonn and beyond. Solfs Moderne Spielstätten - Arcades - Hans-Böckler-Str. 5, Bonn, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany - Phone Number - YelpLocation: Hans-Böckler-Str. 5 Bonn Germany. 7/15/ · Pool Hall in Bonn, Nordrhein-Westfalen. Bei uns finden Sie die größte Auswahl an aktuellen Unterhaltungs- und Spielautomaten in der Region Köln/Bonn/Rhein-Sieg. Wir präsentieren ständig die. Automaten Solf bringt über 50 Jahre Erfahrung rund um den Bereich '​Unterhaltung' mit. Wir betreiben eigene, hochmoderne Spielstätten und betreuen mit. Wir, die Solf´s Spielstätten, freuen uns auf Ihren Besuch! Wir bieten Spiel, Spaß, Service und Unterhaltung auf höchstem Niveau! Wir sind Ihr Treffpun. Heute geöffnet? ❌ÖFFNUNGSZEITEN von „Spielothek Solf´s“ in Bonn ➤ Öffnungszeiten heute ☎ Telefonnummer ✅ Kontaktdaten ✅ Anfahrt ☆ Bewertungen.
Solfs Bonn Väestöstä ruotsinkielisiä on n. Uddrag af H. Ne vastaajat jotka halusivat säilyttää rakennuksen, Paradiescreme Vanille, että raken. Rakennussektori tarjoaa töitä monille sulvalaisille.

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Seine Familie war zu diesem Zeitpunkt frei Traden Ohne Einzahlung Existenzsorgen und nahm am blühenden gesellschaftlichen Leben des Berliner Bürgertums teil.

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Paling's, and at Theatre XB Prleis. In April, at 8 15 p. Bainton, D. Dunelm , F. APRIL nth. What are your favorite songs to use, and why?

Are you still struggling with using pop music? Feel free to comment below, and have a great day! Currently, I teach grades , beginning band, and choir.

Between teaching, spending time with my husband and two daughters, and blogging about ideas for the music room, life keeps me busy…but I love every minute!

I'm in my 22nd year of teaching elementary music. Between teaching, spending time with my husband and two daughters, and blogging about ideas for the music room, life keeps me busy Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly.

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It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Tämän jälkeen alueelle on kaavoitettu ja rakennettu useampia asuinalueita.

Alueelle on muuttanut paljon väkeä ja kasvun odotetaan jatkuvan. Vad har Solf att erbjuda? Mitä Sulva voi tarjota? Sulvan maaseutuympäristö tarjoaa asumiseen ja varttumiseen turvallisen paikan.

Kyrkan invigdes Altaruppsatsen, som är inköpt i Hudiksvall , är en stor sevärdhet i den vackra kyrkan. Grundservicen är bra i Solf.

Lukukautena Sulvan koulussa on oppilasta. Söderfjärden on merkittävä viljelysalue ja merkittävä linnustonsa takia keväisin ja syksyisin.

Pumppuasemalla puolestaan voit osallistua Söderfjärdenin kuivatustarinaan ja ihailla kauniita maisemia. Kirkko, pappila, seurakuntakoti ja hautausmaa muodostavat kauniin kokonaisuuden.

Kirkko vihittiin käyttöön Alttariosa on ostettu Hudiksvallista ja se on kauniin kirkon merkittävimmistä nähtävyyksistä.

Stundarsin ulkoilmamuseo on rakennettu seurakunnan maille ja kuuluu näin ollen alueeseen. Seurakunta tarjoaa toimintaa eri-ikäisille lapsille sekä nuorille, aikuisille ja eläkeläisille.

Laulu ja musiikki ovat aina olleet merkittäviä tekijöitä Sulvan kulttuurielämässä. Jousiorkesteri, puhallinorkesteri, kuoro ja lasten musiikkikoulu kuuluvat kylän kulttuuritarjontaan.

Föräldra-barn-träff vid Solf församlingshem. Vanhemmat ja lapset—ryhmä Sulvan seurakuntatalolla. Ett flertal föreningar ordnar ledda fritidsaktiviteter.

Fotboll och orientering hör till de populäraste sporterna. Tack vare närheten till Vasa har Solf länge varit en populär inflyttningsort.

Alla tillgängliga hyreslägenheter är uthyrda och de kommunala bostadstomterna säljs vartefter de kommer till salu. Stundars är ett stort museum och ett levande kulturcentrum, som starkt präglar bygden.

Sulvalla on hyvät peruspalvelut. Alueella sijaitsee päiväkoti, ruotsinkielinen ala-aste, kirjasto ja terveysasema. Saatavilla on useita lastenhoitajia sekä kerhotoimintaa ala-astelaisille.

Lähikauppa, pankki, kukkakauppa, lahjatavarakauppa sekä ravintolat palvelevat niin kylän asukkaita kuin vierailijoitakin.

Useat yhdistykset järjestävät ohjattua vapaa-ajan toimintaa. Jalkapallo ja suunnistus kuuluvat suosituimpien urheilulajien joukkoon.

Folkhälsan järjestää uimakouluja kylän maauimalan yhteydessä. Västersolfin ladut houkuttelevat talvisaikaan kilpailijoita ja kuntoilijoita hiihtämään.

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There was a decrease from the ten guilds found in lowland forests Kalko et al. At the well-sampled Monteverde cloud forest bat community in Costa Rica, the piscivore is the only missing guild and carnivorous and omnivorous bats are rare Timm and LaVal a.

In this study, piscivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous bats are missing in the cloud forest. The absence or rarity of these guilds might result from the scarcity of foraging ground calm waters and prey piscivorous N.

Bat communities were similar in their species richness, taxonomic composition, and body mass distribution of guilds in spite of ecological e.

Neotropical bat communities are dominated in number of species by the background cluttered aerial insectivore and the frugivore guilds Kalko et al.

Because results from bat studies suggest that bat communities follow similar patterns in taxonomic richness, trophic categories, and body mass distribution, at least in forest ecosystems with appropriate resources available Fleming a , the question rises of how this high bat species diversity is maintained.

Maintenance of Tropical Bat Communities The question of how so many ecologically similar species can coexist, is one central topic in bat studies Findley , Kalko Niche differentiation is a prerequisite for a stable coexistence of similar species Volterra , Lotka and 67 under the premise that resources are a limiting factor, members of the same guild should differ in their niche requirements Begon et al.

Ecological separation of species resources occurs along food, habitat, and time dimensions Giller McNab was the first to use a two-dimensional food habit-body size niche matrix to analyze the structure of tropical bat communities.

He hypothesized that only one common species should occupy each cell in the matrix; however as in this study, it has been found that some cells contain more than one common species Fleming et al.

As McNab and others have suggested, information on factors such as diet, strata use, and temporal activity, are needed to understand how tropical bat communities are structured.

Tropical bats have shown differentiation according to body size, habitat use, foraging strategy, or temporal activity Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko , Kalko et al.

For example, the coexistence of several species of aerial insectivorous bats in the same body mass class can be mediated through a behavioral segregation in foraging pattern Saunders and Barclay , Kalko , Kalko et al.

Lowland gleaning insectivore and omnivore species with similar body mass and abundance may use forest strata differentially e.

The lowland and cloud forests have only one abundant small nectarivorous bat lowland G. Glossophaga soricina has a lower basal metabolic rate and smaller body size than highland nectarivorous species McNab , , Soriano et al.

The largest member of this guild was a rare species P. Neotropical frugivorous bats, which show a positive correlation between their body size and the size of fruits that they consume Heithaus et al.

The genera Carollia and Sturnira are considered understory bats that feed mainly in shrubs of the Piperaceae and Solanaceae Fleming b, The Stenodermatinae except Sturnira are classified as canopy bats that feed mainly on fruits from Ficus Moraceae trees Bonaccorso , Handley et al.

Only lowland bats showed the general stratataxonomic segregation with the exception of S. Most cloud forest frugivores were canopy specialists or made use of both strata, the latter including Carollia and some small Artibeus.

The only understory specialist was the medium-sized highland species S. These plant-bat mutualistic associations influence the ecology of bats, and act as a mechanism that allows species coexistence Fleming ab, , Kalko et al.

There were few very small frugivorous bats in both forests. Lowland small-sized bats were differentiated by strata use in understory Carollia spp.

Among species of Carollia, the segregation in body size, diet, and habitat occurs at a fine scale Fleming The largest and smallest Carollia were abundant: C.

Sturnira lilium, which shows an overlap in diet and size with Carollia Fleming b, , Willig , differed in strata use from the similar in size and abundance C.

In the cloud forest, the abundant C. Carollia brevicauda is the dominant species over C. Low ambient temperatures seem not to be a limiting factor for these species because C.

Among five lowland, small canopy bats, only two Artibeus phaeotis and A. These ecologically similar Artibeus species may coexist through temporal or habitat differentiation see Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko et al.

Among small, cloud forest canopy bats, A. Artibeus phaeotis, which used both strata, is at the margins of its altitudinal distribution at Fortuna cloud forest.

Besides vertical stratification, other ecological factors, such as food and roost availability, need to be considered in bat resource partitioning and competition Kalko et al.

Medium to very large lowland canopy bats were poorly represented in number of individuals; the exception was the superabundant A.

The reason for this is unknown, but the availability of their preferred fruit species or suitable roosts may have influenced their abundance Morrison , 70 Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko et al.

Two cloud forest medium-sized species of Sturnira were similar in abundance but differentiated in strata use.

All largeto very large-sized bats were canopy species with similar abundance, but none was as abundant as the highland P. In this forest, maybe fruit and roost availability and climatic factors allowed these frugivorous species to coexist at similar abundance.

For some groups of bat species, niche segregation might occur at a more fine body size-resource scale, as had been demonstrated in Carollia spp.

Fleming , Thies A clear identification of how tropical bats partition their resources and the spatial and temporal variability in bat diversity shown here needs to be considered when the conservation actions and strategies toward the protection and management of bats and their forest habitats are developed.

In agreement with previous investigations Thomas , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko et al. It also confirms the utility of standardized, long-term sampling in diverse tropical bat communities, only by doing such sampling will it be possible to make comparisons among spatial and temporal components of diversity Kalko , My results reinforce the prevalence of variation in species richness and abundance along vertical, altitudinal, and temporal scales, accentuating the significance of considering tropical bat diversity in space and time.

My comparison of two bat communities revealed differences in the shapes of species abundance distributions from lowland and cloud forests that previous work on bat communities had not detected.

The differences in curve shapes suggest that these forests differ in the environmental factors that influence their bat communities see May , Stenseth , Ugland and Gray , Hubbell Finally, this study encourages 71 comparisons of tropical bat communities at other lowland and highland sites, and points to a means of advancing our understanding of how spatial and temporal factors may influence tropical bat diversity and in consequence how to conserve both bats and their habitats.

The multidimensional niche concept Hutchinson as a resource utilization spectrum, provides a mean to understand how species relate to one another, and enhance our interpretation of community organization Giller Similar species can separate their activities along three major categories of resource dimensions: food, habitat, and time Giller , Colinvaux Complex resource segregation is found in assemblages with many similar species Feinsinger , Emmons , Karr and Freemark , Brown and Kurzius , Roubik The guild concept sensu Root , as a group of species that exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, provides a opportunity to compare activity patterns among similar species, and to answer the question of how similar species coexist Terborgh and Robinson , Kalko , Comparing guilds has been successful in the study of bat communities.

Early studies of the species-rich Neotropical bat communities revealed that niche space of similar-sized bats with similar food preferences is tightly packed, especially among frugivores Fleming et al.

Subsequently, more complete knowledge about resources 72 73 and habitat requirements of species has improved the descriptions of Neotropical bat guilds Bonaccorso , Kalko , Schnitzler and Kalko However, broad overlap in resources and habitat use within a guild has also been documented, especially within frugivorous bats Bonaccorso , Willig et al.

New World frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in the family Phyllostomidae, are the dominant species in both lowland and highland bat communities Fleming a, , Kalko et al.

They have developed a mutualistic relationship with plants as pollinators and seed dispersers, which contributes to the maintenance of the genetic diversity of plants and the regeneration processes of the forests Faegri and van der Pijl , van der Pijl , Heithaus Because plantvisiting bats are a species-rich group, it is expected that they will show a combination of diet, habitat, and temporal resource partitioning.

More studies have addressed differences in diet and horizontal habitat use among plant-visiting bats reviewed by Fleming , Fleming and Sosa , and Kalko et al.

Results from Bonaccorso's study , Bonaccorso and Humphrey demonstrating that bat switch strata seasonally, suggest that this behavior can be widespread among bats and that it can operate as mechanism of coexistence.

The study focuses on species from highly diverse genera: Artibeus, Sturnira, and Carollia. Correlation of vertical stratification with body size, and seasonal changes in the proportion of strata use were examined.

Finally, the results are discussed in the context of differences in climate, vegetation, and elevation between forests and compared with findings from previous studies.

The lowland site is Cerro Batipa 80 20' Batipa has an elevation range of m. The site lies in a tropical moist forest life zone Tosi and has a tropical climate with a prolonged dry season McKay The vegetation covers ha of tropical evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest, and dry forest Valdespino and Santamaria The forest canopy has a height of 30 m and emergent trees of 40 m with a closed canopy and relatively open understory Chapter 2.

The vegetation is described in details in Chapter 2 and in Valdespino and Santamaria The reserve has ranges in elevation from m Diaz , but the study site spans an elevation of m.

Diaz Fortuna has two life zones Tosi , Diaz : premontane wet forest and lower wet mountain forest. It shows a mountain oceanic climate McKay , with mean annual ambient temperature of The reserve comprises 19, ha of continuous lower mountain rainforest Cavelier , Dfaz , classified as a tropical ombrophilous cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg The forest canopy is m in height with an open canopy and emergent trees of 40 m, and a dense understory Cavelier , Chapter 2.

Detailed description of the vegetation in Fortuna is found in Mayo et al. Bat Mist Netting Bats were captured from July to December , except for June , when it was not possible to visit the sites.

I sampled each bat community with mist nets for 1 to 4 nights each month, depending of the weather conditions. Temporal and Vertical Abundance Analysis To compare bat species abundance by strata, season, and month, I estimated a three year-mean monthly species abundance, except for June, which is a 2 yearmean Values for abundance were standardized by divided the monthly abundance between the monthly effort mist net-hour.

Seasons were divided into dry season January to April , early rainy season May to August , and late rainy season September to December. To compare distribution of understory and canopy captures, I calculated the number of individuals captured by species in a stratum during the whole study, including the recaptures in different months.

Differences in the species abundance distribution between understory and canopy were tested using a G' goodness-of-fit test. To examine 77 the relationship between strata preference and body size, I used the number of canopy captures, expressed as a percentage of the total species captures, and the mean body mass.

I tested with ANOVA the relationship between strata use and body size for a possible correlation of guilds: nectarivores, frugivores, Piper-Solanum bats, large and small fig-eating bats; and genera: Carollia, large and small Artibeus, categories Sall and Lehman Results Species Temporal Abundance A total of individuals belonging to 32 species of plant-visiting bats were captured from the individuals and 53 species recorded during this study Chapter 3.

The cloud forest had equal or more species of plant-visiting bats in the two guilds Appendix 2, Chapter 3. Species abundance in nectarivorous and frugivorous bats varied over time.

Most species of lowland and cloud forest plant-visiting bats had their peaks in abundance during the early rainy season or during the late rainy season Figures , The lowland and cloud forest species of nectarivorous bats had similar seasonal trends in abundance.

Both lowland G. Glossophaga had a peak in May and was mostly absent during the late rainy season Figure The four lowland Piper- 78 Solanum bats differed in their seasonal abundance.

I captured more individuals of the superabundant large fig-eating bat A. Among cloud forest Piper-Solanum bats, I captured more S.

Within S. Carollia perspicillata was only present in the cloud forest from August-October with its peak in August Figure Four species of small cloud forest fig-eating bats, A.

They had peaks in abundance on March, June, and August for A. Artibeus phaeotis was mainly present in the cloud forest during the late rainy season Figure The other two large frugivorous bats, A.

The peaks in abundance for Platyrrhinus vittatus was on June and October, for A. Bats Vertical Stratification Lowland plant-visiting bats clearly differentiated in their preference for a forest stratum Chapters 2, 3, Appendix B.

The lowland nectarivorous bat and three species of Carollia were captured more frequently in the understory than in the canopy G's - 7.

Canopy captures, expressed as percentage, of nectar- and Piper-eating bats G. For small fig-eating bats A. Bats Vertical Stratification by Season Some species of plant-visiting bats seasonally switched their foraging activity from one stratum to another, estimated as a seasonal change in the proportion of strata use Tables , , Figures , , , , , , Appendix B.

The lowland G. All lowland species of Carollia maintained their understory foraging behavior, but C. Temporal variation in species abundance measured as monthly bats captured per net hour of lowland and cloud forest nectarivorous a and cloud forest b and lowland c Piper-Solanum frugivorous bats.

Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June and cloud forest C. This theory is as untenable as that which attributed Provencal rhythms to Arab singers.

No less erroneous is the idea that the entire assonantic system is an Arab invention. To father Spanish romances and Provencal trobas upon them is a mere freak of fancy.

The tacit basis of this theory is that the Span- iards took a rare interest in the intellectual side of Arab life; but the assumption is not justified by evidence.

Save in a casual passage, as that in the CrSnica General on the capture of Valencia, the Castilian historians steadily ignore their Arab rivals.

On the other hand, there is a class of romances fronterizos border ballads , such as that on the loss of Alhama, which is based on Arabic legends ; and at least one such ballad, that of Abenamar, may be the work of a Spanish-speaking Moor.

But these are isolated cases, are exceptional solely as regards the source of the subject, and nowise differ in form from the two thousand other ballads of the Roman-- ceros.

To find a case of real imitation we must pass to the fifteenth century, when that learned lyrist, the Marques de Santillana, deliberately experiments in the measures of an Arab zajaly a performance matched by a surviving fragment due to an anonymous poet in the Cancionero de Linares.

These are metrical audacities, resembling the revival of French ballades and rondeatix by artificers like Mr. Dobson, Mr. Gosse, and Mr.

Henley in our own day. This is not to say that Arabic popular poetry had no influence on such popular Spanish verse as the coplaSy of which some are appa- rently but translations of Arabic songs.

To this extent, in common with the rest of Europe, Spain owes the Arabs a debt which her picaresque novels and comedies have more than paid ; but here again the Arab acts as a mere middleman, taking the story of Kalilah and Dimna from the Sanskrit through the Pehlevi version, and then passing it by way of Spain to the rest of the Continent.

Nor should it be over- looked that Spaniards, disguised as Arabs, shared in the work of interpretation. Patriots would per- suade you that the Arabs brought nothing to the stock of general culture, and the more thoroughgoing insist that the Spaniards lent more than they borrowed.

But the point may be pressed too far. Apart from the evidence of Paulus Alvarus Cor- yflubiensis, St.

Nor can it be pleaded that this zeal was invariably due to official pressure : on the contrary, a caliph went the length of forbidding Spanish Jews and Christians to learn Arabic.

Yet, even so, the rude Latin of the unconquered north remained well-nigh intact. Save in isolated centres, it was spoken by countless Christians and by the Spaniards who had escaped to the African province of Tingitana.

Vast deduction must be made from the jeremiads of Paulus Alvarus Cordubiensis. Arabs tended more and more to ape the dress, the arms, the customs of the Spaniards ; and the Castilian-speaking Arab — the moro latinado — multiplied prodigiously.

When Archbishop Raimundo founded his College of Translators at Toledo, where Dominicus Gundisalvi collaborated with the convert Abraham ben David Johannes Hispalensis , it might have seemed that the preservation of Arabic and Hebrew was secure.

There and then, there could not have occurred such a blunder as that immortal one of the Capuchin, Henricus Seynensis, who lives eternal by mis- taking the Talmud — " Rabbi Talmud " — for a man.

But no Arab work endures. And as with Arab philosophy in Spain, so with the Arabic language : its soul was required of it.

Hebrew, indeed, was not forgotten ; and for Arabic,, a revival might be expected during the Crusades. Nearly two centuries before in a council under Pope Clement V.

But the peculiarity of aljamia is that it begot a literature of its own, though, naturally enough, a literature modelled on the Spanish.

Its best production is the Poema de Yusuf; and it may be noted that this, like its much later fellow. So also the Aragonese Morisco, Muhammad Rabadin, writes his cyclic poem in Spanish octosyllabics ; and in his successors there are hendecasyllabics mani- festly imitated from a characteristic Galician measure de gaita gallegd.

The subjects of the textos aljamiados are frankly conveyed from Western sources : the Com- pilation of Alexander y an orientalised version of the French ; the History of the Loves of Paris and Viana, a translation from the Provencal ; and the Maid of Area- yonay based on the Spanish poem Apolonio.

In the Cancionero de Baena appears Mahomat-el-Xartosse, with- out his turban, as a full-fledged Spanish poet ; and the old tradition of servility is continued by an anonymous refugee in Tunis, who shows himself an authority on the plays and the lyric verse of Lope de Vega.

It is therefore erroneous to suppose that the northern Spaniards on their southward march fell in with nume- rous kinsmen, of wider culture and of a higher civilisa- tion, whose everyday speech was unintelligible to them, and who prayed to Christ in the tongue of Muhammad.

Such cases may have occurred, but as the rarest excep- tions. Not less unfounded is the theory that Castilian is a fusion of southern academic Arabic with barbarous northern Latin.

Lastly, it must be borne in mind that the variety of Romance which finally prevailed in Spain was not the speech of the northern highlanders, but that of the MuzArabes of the south and the centre.

In the eighth century this Basque invasion was avenged. The Spaniards, concentrating in the ;! Deriving from the langtic d'ocy Catalan divides into pld Catald and Lemosl — the common speech and the literary tongue.

Vidal de Besalu calls his own Provengal language limosina or lemoziy and the name, taken from his popular treatise Dreita Maneira de TrobaVy was at first limited to literary Provencal ; but endless confusion arises from the fact that when Catalans took to composing, their poems were likewise said to be written in lengua lemosina.

Galician, now little more than a simple dialect, is artifici- ally kept alive by the efforts of patriotic minor poets; but its literary influence is extinct, and the distinguished figures of the province, as Dona Emilia Pardo Bazdn, naturally seek a larger audience by writing in Castilian.

What befell in Italy and France befell in Spain. Partly through political causes, partly by force of superior culture, the language of a single centre ousted its rivals.

As France takes its speech from Paris and the lie de France, as Florence domi- nates Italy, so Castile d ictates her language to all the Spains.

The dominant type, then, of Spanish is the Castilian, which, as the most potent form, has outlived its brethren, and, with trifling variations, now extends, not only over Spain, but as far west as Lima and Val- paraiso, and as far east as the Philippine Islands : in effect, "from China to Peru.

The first allusion to any distinct variety of Romance is found in the life of a certain St. Mummolin who was Bishop of Noyen, succeeding St.

Eloi in A reference to the Spanish type of Romance is found as far back as ; but the authenticity of the docu- ment is very doubtful.

The breaking-up of Latin in Spain is certainly observable in Bishop Odoor's will under the date of The celebrated Strasburg Oaths, the oldest of Romance instruments, belong to the year ; and, in an edict of , Charles the Bald mentions, as a thing apart, "the customary language" — usitato vocabulo — of the Spaniards.

There is, however, no exist- ing Spanish manuscript so ancient, nor is there any monument as old, as the Italian Carta di Capua The Charter called the Fuero de Avilh of which is in bable or Asturian, not Castilian , has long passed for the oldest example of Spanish, on the joint and several authority of Gonzdlez Llanos, Ticknor,.

These intricate questions of authority and ascription may well be left unsettled, for legal documents are but the dry bones of letters.

These, probably, are the jetsam of a cargo of literature which has foundered. Doubtless there were other older, shorter songs or cantares on the Cid's prowess ; there unquestionably were songs upon Bernaldo de Carpio and upon the Infantes de Lara which are rudely preserved in asso- nantic prose passages of the CrSnica General.

At most this is a pious opinion. But in any case the cantilena theory is idle ; for, since no cantilenas exist, no evidence is — or can be — forthcoming to eke out an attractive but unconvincing thesis.

In default of testi- mony and of intrinsic probability, the theory depends solely on bold assertion, and it suffices to say that the cantilena hypothesis is now abandoned by all save a knot of fanatical partisans.

The exploits of the battle-field would, in all likeli- hood, be the first subjects of song ; and the earliest singers of these deeds — gesta — would appear in the chieftain's household.

Odyssey the aoihiyi or professional sin. The trovadores are generally authors ; the juglares are mere executants — singers, declaimers, mimes, or simple mountebanks.

Of these lowlier performers one type has been immortalised in M. But between trovadores and juglares it is not possible to draw a hard-and-fast line : their functions intermingled.

Some few trovadores anticipated Wagner by eight or nine centuries, composing their own music-drama on a lesser scale. In cases of special endowment, the composer of words and music delivered them to the audience.

Subdivisions abounded. There were the juglares or singing-actors, the remendadores or mimes, the cazurros or mutes with duties undefined, resembling those of the intelligent " super.

There were juglares de boca reciters and juglares de pMola musicians. The normal rule was that the juglar recited the trovadores verses ; but, as already said, an occasional trovador Alfonso Alvarez de Villasandino, at Seville, in the fifteenth century, is a case in point would declaim his own ballad.

In the juglares hands the original was cut or padded to suit the hearers' taste. He subordinated the verses to the music, and gave them maimed, or arabesqued with estribillos refrains , to fit a popular air.

The commonest arrangement was that the juglar de boca sang the trovador's words, the juglar de pifiola accompanying on some simple instrument, while the remendador gave the story in pantomime.

With the Greeks the minstrel attains at last I an important post in the chieftain's train. Seated on a high chair inlaid with silver, he entertains the guests, or guards the wife of Agamemnon, his patron and his friend.

Just so does Phemios sing amid the suitors of Penelope. It was not always thus. B entley has to ld us in his pointed way that " poor Homer in those circHm- stances and early times had never such aspiring thoughts" as mankind and everlasting fame ; and that " he wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies to be sung by himself for small earnings and good cheer, at festivals, and other days of merriment.

The tro- vadory like the rest of the world, failed under the trials of prosperity. He became the curled darling of kings and nobles, and haggled over prices and salaries in the t rue spirit of "oun -ejninent.

These could not leave Ephraim alone: they too must wed his idols. To pose as a trovador became in certain great houses a family tradition.

Grouped round the commanding figure of the Marques de Santillana stand the rivals of his own house-top : his grandfather, Pedro Gonzdlez de Mendoza ; his father, the Admiral Diego Furtado de Mendoza, a picaroon poet, spiteful, brutal, and witty ; his uncle, Pedro Vdez de Guevara, who turns you a song of roguery or devotion with equal indifference and mastery.

The world entire — tall, short, old, - young, nobles, serfs — did nought but make or hear verses, as that trovador errant, Vidal de Besalu, records.

It may be that Poggio's anecdote of a later time is literally true : that a poor man, absorbed in Hector's story, paid the spouter to adjourn the catastrophe from day to day till, his money being spent, he was forced to hear the end with tears.

With the juglar strolled the primitive actress, the juglaresay mentioned in the Libre del Apolonio, and branded as " infamous " in Alfonso's code of Las Siete Partidas, At the court of Juan II.

So much might be inferred from the introduction and passage of a law forbidding the ordination oi juglares; and, in the Cancioneiro Portuguez da Vaticana No.

The Villasandino, already mentioned, a pert Galician trovador at Juan ll. And in the last decline the executants were blind men who sang before church- doors and in public squares, lacing old ballads with what they were pleased to call "emendations," or, in other words, intruding original banalities of their own.

This decline of material prosperity had a most disastrous effect upon literature. A popular cantar or song was written by a poor man of genius.

More : re- peated by many lips during a long period of years, the form of a very popular cantar manifestly ran the risk of change so radical that within a few generations the original might be transformed in such wise as to be practically lost.

This fate has, in effect, overtaken the great body of early Spanish song. Two considerable cantares de gesta of the Cid survive as fragments, and they owe their lives to a happy accident — the accident of being written down.

They must have had fellows, but probably not an immense number of them, as in France. If the formal cantar de gesta died young, its spirit lived triumphantly in the set chronicle and in the brief romance.

In the chronicle the author aims at closer exactitude and finer detail, in the romance at swifter movement and at greater picturesqueness of artistic incident.

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Akinonos · 16.02.2020 um 18:58

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